The CHAPS-SEProject is created and organized to operate within the laws and regulations of the United States of America. In the spirit and concept of Agro-Biogenics, Inc., established in India to meet the needs of impoverish people and communities of the undeveloped nations, CHAPS-SEProjects proposes to produced energy from waste organics of the more effluent Nations. Using the wastes normally deposited into sewers and landfills, from non-food stuff biomass such as lawn clippings, weeds and garden debris, and from purposely grown algae farms, the CHAPS-SEProject will discover, explore, research, develop, acquire, test, integrate, maintain, finance, sell or lease to individuals and to communities the latest equipment and processes available for processing these wastes into electrical energy and into marketable fuels, chemicals and products.
As the population of the earth expands, the demand for fossil fuel energy expands, not only depleting the natural resource, but polluting the air, water, and land at an ever increasing rate. Science has been working feverishly to find new sources of energy to replace fossil fuels, exploring atomic energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, the list goes on and on. Some show promise while others fall by the wayside. The purpose of CHAPS-SEProjects is to find those alternatives to fossil fuels which can be practical and practicable for individual home owners and small communities in the the more effluent developed world. CHAPS-SEProjects is developing systems that utilize the organic wastes that humanity throws way in the trash or flushes through the sewer system to create energy and useful products in order to supplement the existing electrical grid, liquid fuels and natural gas supply. This will have a side benefit of relieving pollution and the demand on our overtaxed landfills and sewer systems while conserving natural resources and providing ownership of lower cost energy to the individual citizens and their communities. One more benefit is disbursement of energy production facilities will make the power grid less vulnerably to storms and terrorist attack.
CHAPS-SEProjects is established as a vehicle to address the multiple issues facing humanity today without significant disruption to the existing infrastructures. The issues which CHAPS-SEProjects will attempt to address are science and engineering education, pollution, employment, economy, and, especially, energy. (also see the MISSION STATEMENT for chtank.org) The intent is to address these issues in ways that augment, enhance, complement, and supplement the existing governmental and industrial systems. CHAPS-SEProjects will attempt to reduce carbon emissions, diversify inexpensive energy production, create employment opportunities, and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. CHAPS-SEProjects will make every effort to integrate the latest science and engineering discovery and development in the fields of waste disposal, conservation, efficiency, Algae farming, and to bring these advancements to the benefit of the population regardless of economic status. Effort will be made to assure each individual and community will retain control over the systems such that no undue expenses or reduction of supply can be applied to satisfy unjustified taxation or corporate control of profits. It is CHAPS-SEProjects' belief that, other than justified expenses, control and profits should remain within the local community for the benefit of the local community and the citizenship.
In order to organize CHAPS, a committee is constituted to be develop into a Board of Directors upon Incorporation of CHAPS-SEProject. The committee will continue to investigate the feasibility of Incorporating, to draft and edit this ongoing Business Plan, to recruit membership to the organization,and the possibility of extending the organization to the more effluent nations. Upon Incorporation members of the committee will select a Board of Directors of CHAPS-SEProjects Incorporated,and divide shares equitably among the Board of Directors and other supporting members of the Corporation. The organization of the committee consist of the following:
Systems,Schemes, Arrangements and Methods:
In order to assist in International effort to conserve natural resources, reduce the pollution loads on land, sea and air, provide for a better security and dependability of energy and fuel supplies, provide for more economical fuels and energy, create added employment, and improve the economy, CHAPS-SEProjects proposes the instillation of the following alternative energy producing systems by entrepreneur and small business who are or who employ at least one licensed electrician.
Basic or Primary System:
The starter module is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). As of today, February, 2011, the SOFC in the range of 2kW through 10kW are coming onto the market with several manufacturers, both in the USA and outside the USA making offers. The one stipulation for CHAPS-SEProjects will insist on is that the fuel cell be turnkey. That it must be 50 or 60 cycle,three phase, 110/220 volt in order to be installed on the client side of the current electrical grid meter before the breaker box. The location of the tie-in is such that any unused electric power can be fed back to the grid for credit to the homeowner; thus encouraging the homeowner to economize. This also will allow the grid to supply power should the SOFC fail. The SOFC will require a concrete support pad in the immediate vicinity of the breaker box and a natural gas line be installed from the house side of the Natural Gas meter to the SOFC with a shut-off valve at each end. With this configuration the exhaust from the SOFC must be vented to a safe place and insulated to prevent injury by the possible 1,000°C (1800°F). The high temperature can be used, also, for water heating and for home heating but this will require some add-on modules which will be described later in this section and listed in the Products, equipment and Modules chart. The SOFC's that CHAPS-SEProjects will provide will cost between $400.00 to not more than $1,000, having a life expectancy in access of not less than 20,000 hours (as ) The SOFC would be paid for via a lease and maintenence agreement which would not exceed and may be substantially less than the home-owner's current average electric bill. The homeowner will, however, be responsible for the gas utility bill.
The Basic or Primary System, which should be the first item to be installed for either the home owner or a community will be the electric power generator. Much has been heard in favor of the use of Fuel Cells, mostly, for providing the electrical power for use in the transportation industry. However, for the use in homes and communities, the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the most practical for continuous operation in a stationary location.
The SOFC is the most efficient and most economical means of electrical power production today. In addition, because the SOFC acts as a reformer by the nature of its operation, one is not limited to Natural Gas (Methane). The SOFC operates just as well on Hydrogen, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons and/or alcohols. As the Fuel Cell produces electric power, its operating temperature is from 800°C to 1,000 °C, which breaks down the fuel into its component parts, steam, Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide are oxidized to produce Carbon Dioxide and H20 in the form of steam It requires between 30 minutes to an hour for the SOFC to warm up and start full production, but once running, those tested so far have operated continuously for well of 10,000 hours and some for over 20,000 hours. The high temperature exhaust can be used to heat water and heat the home, provide the heat to power a Free Piston Stirling Generator or to produce steam for a steam engine generator . And finally, the CO2 can be captured, along with the steam which is condensed during the heat capture above, and the CO2 may then be reformatted into a hydrocarbon fuel of choice using the Carbon Dioxide sequestering method being developed as described with SP-01. The beauty of using the module concept for this work it that the modules can be added, exchanged, or replaced as needed and as research and development brings new tools on-line.
Recently, a new component has been added to the SOFC mix. It is called RSOFC or Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. The RSOFC uses electrical power generated by PV (PhotoVoltaic aka Solar) Cells or Wind Turbines to transform steam into hydrogen and oxygen far more efficiently than any other means. To understand where the SOFC and the RSOFC stand as of the beginning of 2011, one should study the Technical Meeting Report (PDF) presented on Capitol Hill May 12, 2011. Since this project is still in the searched and development stage, it will be quite some time before the RSOFC (aka SOFC/SOEC) will bocome commercially available.
Products, Equipment and Modules:
Most of the following modules are supported, tested, and recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and/or the National Aviation and Space Agency (NASA). CHAPS will provide a number of schemes which may be licensed, with training available, to entrepreneurs and appropriate small businesses for sale or lease with or without a maintenance agreement and scaled to individuals or a urban communities needs. The schemes are also scalable and adaptable to either the rural or the urban situation. The schemes presented here will integrate modules for biomass digestion, electric power production, home heating and air conditioning, and carbon dioxide sequestering and conversion. The list of modules currently under investigation for inclusion are as follows: